Colombia is a country in South America with a population of nearly 52 million. Most people in Colombia, some 82%, live in urban areas. More than a quarter of the country’s population lives in the five cities with over one million inhabitants: Bogotá, the capital city, Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla and Cartagena.

The largest part of the population in Colombia is accounted for by Whites and Mestizos (non-ethnic population). Almost 11% is accounted for by Afro-Colombian and Amerindian.

The median age in Colombia is 31.6 years. The country’s demographic structure has not changed significantly in recent years. Only a slight decline in the share of young people has been noticed.

The Christian religion is dominant in Colombia, with 59% of the people declaring themselves Roman Catholic. A total of 18% of Colombians say that they do not have any religion.


Like many countries in the region, Colombia has seen a massive economic decline in recent years, to a large extent triggered by the Covid-19 pandemic, which sent the GDP down by more than 7% in 2020. The same year, unemployment increased to 16%, a figure that has improved in recent years, yet not at the levels experienced before 2019.

Freedom and Integrity

One of the most dangerous places for journalists in the world, Colombia continues to struggle with a very poor media freedom record. In 2023, the country ranked 139th in the Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index. Topics such as the environment, armed conflict, corruption, illegal armed groups and organized crime remain sensitive. The country is also grappling with galloping corruption, being among the laggards in the Corruption Perception Index of Transparency International.

Technology and Access

In recent years, use of technology has increased significantly in Colombia. Mobile penetration was as high as 146% in 2021 while mobile broadband penetration has reached 76 out of 100 Colombians in 2022. However, there are major discrepancies in penetration and access between urban and rural areas, villages and town lagging behind larger cities.